1 - 4 . (canceled)
5 . A method for inhibiting or decreasing cardiotoxicity in a subject receiving a cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, said method comprising delivering BRCA1 to the subject.
6 . A method for enhancing efficacy of a cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agent in a subject receiving a cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, said method comprising delivering BRCA1 to the subject so that higher doses of the chemotherapeutic agent can be administered with reduced cardiotoxicity.
7 . (canceled)
8 . A method for treating or preventing atherosclerosis or promoting regression of atherosclerotic lesions in a subject comprising delivering BRCA1 to the subject.
9 - 10 . (canceled)
11 . A method of protecting against or inhibiting development of transplant atherosclerosis in a subject comprising delivering BRCA1 to the subject.
12 - 13 . (canceled)
14 . A method for treating a subject at high risk or very high risk of developing cardiovascular disease comprising delivering BRCA1 to the subject.
15 . The method of claim 14 wherein the subject has familial cholesterolemia.
16 - 19 . (canceled)
20 . The method of claim 14 wherein the cardiovascular disease is coronary heart disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, intermittent claudication or cerebral vascular disease.
21 . The method of claim 5 wherein BRCA1 is delivered as a polynucleotide so that BRCA1 is expressed in cells of the subject.
22 . The method of claim 21 wherein the polynucleotide is incorporated into a vector for delivery.
23 . The method of claim 22 wherein the vector is a viral vector.
24 . The method of claim 22 wherein the vector is a nonviral vector.
25 . The method of claim 21 wherein the polynucleotide is delivered as naked DNA.
26 . The method of claim 5 wherein BRCA1 is delivered as a protein.
27 . The method of claim 5 wherein BRCA1 is delivered as a progenitor cell overexpressing BRCA1.
28 . A method for selecting a chemotherapeutic agent to be administered to a subject suffering from cancer, said method comprising assessing expression of BRCA1 or a BRCA1 mutant in the subject.
29 . The method of claim 8 wherein BRCA1 is delivered as a polynucleotide so that BRCA1 is expressed in cells of the subject.
30 . The method of claim 29 wherein the polynucleotide is incorporated into a vector for delivery.
31 . The method of claim 30 wherein the vector is a viral vector.
32 . The method of claim 30 wherein the vector is a nonviral vector.
33 . The method of claim 29 wherein the polynucleotide is delivered as naked DNA.
34 . The method of claim 8 wherein BRCA1 is delivered as a protein.
35 . The method of claim 8 wherein BRCA1 is delivered as a progenitor cell overexpressing BRCA1.
 This patent application claims the benefit of priority from U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/102,609, filed Oct. 3, 2008, teachings of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to methods for use of BRCA1 in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 BRCA1 (breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (NM — 007294.2)), is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in the hereditary predisposition to familial breast and ovarian cancers. A mutation in the BRCA1 gene significantly increases the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer (Ford et al. Am J Hum Genet. 1998 62:676-689). Multiple references describe methods for treatment and/or diagnosis and/or prognosis of cancer based on BRCA1. See, e.g. U.S. Pat. No. 5,747,282.
 BRCA1 is also involved in DNA repair and genome integrity (Scully and Livingston Nature 2000 408, 429-432). This nuclear protein has a role in DNA repair, transcription, ubiquitylation and cell cycle regulation (Deng et al. Bioessays 2000 22(8):728-737). BRCA1 potently inhibits genome instability by regulating expression of genes that are involved in DNA damage repair pathways (Deng et al. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 12 Spec No 1:R113-123). Murine embryos carrying a BRCA1-null mutation exhibit hypersensitivity to DNA damage and chromosomal abnormalities likely due to defective G2/M checkpoint control and improper centrosome duplication (Scully et al. Mol Cell. 1999 4(6):1093-1099; Somasundaram et al. Oncogene 1999 18(47):6605-6614). BRCA1-nullizygous mice show embryonic lethality in early stages of development that are associated with a proliferation deficit (Hakem et al. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1998 3(4):431-445).
 BRCA1 interacts directly and/or indirectly with many other proteins and signaling hubs including p53, which have been implicated in cardiac remodeling (Deng et al. Bioessays 2000 22(8):728-737). Although this relationship is complex, and contextual, recent studies demonstrate that BRCA1 exon11-knockout embryos die late in gestation as a result of widespread apoptosis but elimination of one p53 allele rescues this embryonic lethality (Xu et al. Nat Genet. 2001 28(3):266-271; Xu et al. Nat Genet. 1999 22(1):37-43).
 BRCA1-deficient cells have been shown to have increased sensitivity to apoptosis induction in the presence of BARD1 and doxorubicin (Irminger-Finger et al. Molecular Cell 2001 8: 1255-1266; EP 1321522). Use of a BRCA1 construct in combination with BARD1 antisense to treat ischemic stroke or heart failure is suggested (EP 1321522).
 WO 2006/015127 A2 describes using stem cells expressing at least one polypeptide selected from the group consisting of Oct4; DEK; BRCA1; Ect2; and MYC; at least one polypeptide selected from the group consisting of Fosb; NRAP; MEF2A; Furin; and TGFβ1; and at least one polypeptide selected from the group consisting of integral membrane protein 2A; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4; thymus cell antigen 1, theta; selenoprotein P, plasma 1; and glycoprotein 38, for repairing cardiovascular tissue. The stem cells are administered to cardiovascular tissue and more specifically heart tissue.
 Published U.S. Patent Application US 2006/0154252 discloses upregulation of BRCA1 during progression of an atherosclerotic plaque.
 WO 2002/46466 describes use of a BRCA/STAT complex modulating compound comprising a STAT activating agent and a BRCA polypeptide or functional fragment thereof to inhibit cellular proliferation mediated by a BRCA/STAT complex. BRCA/STAT complex modulating compounds are suggested to reduce the rate or extent of proliferation useful in treating an individual having a vascular proliferative disorder such as atherosclerosis (WO 2002/46466).
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 An aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 to inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and/or to improve cardiac function in a subject.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 in a subject at high risk or very high risk of developing cardiovascular disease, for example a subject with familial hypercholesterolemia.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 in a subject with peripheral artery disease wherein BRCA1 increase tissue neovascularization and enhances collateral blood flow of the tissue or limbs, i.e. extremities.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 in a subject having suffered a first acute coronary event to protect or inhibit the subject from suffering a second or subsequent coronary events.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 to inhibit or decrease cardiotoxicity in a subject receiving a cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agent.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 to enhance efficacy of cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agents by delivering to a subject receiving a cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agent BRCA1 so that higher doses of the chemotherapeutic agent can be administered.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 to inhibit inflammation-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. BRCA1 delivery is expected to be useful in the treatment of disorders linked to endothelial dysfunction including, but not limited to, pulmonary artery hypertension, systemic hypertension, diabetes, insulin resistance, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and pregnancy induced hypertension, as well as atherosclerosis.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 to protect against or inhibit development of transplant atherosclerosis in response to immunosuppressants in a subject at risk.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 in a subject to prevent or reduce cardiac remodeling.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 in subject to treat diseases including, but not limited to coronary heart disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, intermittent claudication and/or cerebral vascular disease, i.e. ischemic stroke.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 to decrease free fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid synthesis thereby treating dyslipidemia in a subject.
 Another aspect of the present invention relates to assessing expression of BRCA1 or a BRCA1 mutant in a subject suffering from cancer to provide a pharmacogenomic basis to guide chemotherapeutic decision making.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
 FIG. 1 is a diagram depicting BRCA1 and p53 Pathway as a Signaling Hub for Cell Survival and/or Death. Both BRCA1 and p53 can be phosphorylated by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinases in response to DNA breaks caused by stressors that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). DNA damage also directly causes BRCA1 to bind to a number of proteins (Rad51 and BRCA2), activate/co-activate p53 and promote protein ubiquitylation. Through its interaction with activated p53, BRCA1 can co-activate transcription of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax and PUMA) and/or cell cycle regulatory genes (p21 & Gadd45) resulting in apoptosis, cell cycle arrest or cell survival. Our preliminary data suggest that BRCA1 downregulates p53 in cardiomyocytes that have been subjected to hypoxic, genotoxic or ROS-induced stress thereby shifting the flux from apoptosis to cell survival.
 FIGS. 2A through 2C show results from experiments determining BRCA1 expression in the heart under basal conditions post myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. FIG. 2A is a bar graph showing levels of RNA isolated from the indicated organs, reverse transcribed and analyzed by real-time PCR. GADPH was used as an internal control (n=3 per group). FIG. 2B shows the PCR products run on an agarose gel. FIG. 2C is a bar graph showing the change in BRCA1 expression in remote myocardial tissue post-myocardial infarction over time. “*” is indicative of p<0.05 and “**” is indicative of p<0.01 vs sham operated mice (n=4 per group).
 FIGS. 3A through 3C provide data from experiments demonstrating cardiac function is preserved after co-administration of Ad-hBRCA1 and doxorubicin in mice. Left ventricular function was assessed by echocardiography measuring percent systolic ejection fraction 3 days ( FIG. 3A ) or 7 days ( FIG. 3B ) after administration of vehicle, Ad-null vector (40 μl of 10 10 PFU, i.v.), Ad-GFP (40 μl of 10 10 PFU, i.v.), doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) with Ad-hBRCA1 (40 μl of 10 10 PFU, i.v.). Left ventricular function was also assessed by measuring fractional shortening values 3 days ( FIG. 3C ) after administration of vehicle, Ad-null vector (40 μl of 10 10 PFU, i.v.), Ad-GFP (40 μl of 10 10 PFU, i.v.), doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) with Ad-hBRCA1 (40 μl of 10 10 PFU, i.v.). *P<0.01 vs corresponding PBS group. †P<0.01 vs corresponding doxorubicin group. #p<0.01 vs. PBS+ad-GFP, ##p<0.001 vs. Dox+ad-BRCA1. n=3 for PBS and GFP groups; n=7 for doxorubicin and doxorubicin-BRCA1 groups. FIG. 3D shows exogenous expression of the human variant of BRCA1 in the left ventricle, liver and spleen by real-time PCR. PCR products were resolved on agarose gel with GAPDH used as the internal control. The plasmid containing the human variant of BRCA1 was used as the positive control.
 FIGS. 4A through 4C show optimization of adenoviral transfection. In the bar graph of FIG. 4A , RNA was isolated from culture cardiomyocytes after adenoviral transfection and examined for the expression of exogenous BRCA1. GAPDH was used as the internal control. FIG. 4B shows results of nuclear protein extracted and resolved by SDS-PAGE and probed with anti-BRCA1 antibodies to determine the exogenous expression of BRCA1 in cultured cardiomyocytes. FIG. 4C shows an image at 200× magnification of cardiomyocytes transfected with ad-GFP (10 MOI). TFIIB was used as the loading control. “**” is indicative of p<0.01 vs GFP.
 FIGS. 5A through 5C show results from experiments demonstrating BRCA1 overexpression confers protection against doxorubicin-induced myocyte apoptosis in mice. In FIG. 5A apoptosis in control, BRCA1-overexpressing, doxorubicin-treated and doxorubicin-treated-BRCA1-overexpressing neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCM) was assessed by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining coupled with flow cytometry. Quadrants S1, S2, S3 and S4 respectively represent necrotic, late apoptotic, viable live and early apoptotic NRVCM. FIG. 5B is a representative western blot of cleaved caspase-3 and α-actin proteins in NRVCM infected with either 10 MOI Ad-hBRCA1 or Ad-null vector for 48 hours before being exposed to 2 μM doxorubicin for 24 hours. Data are expressed as mean±SD. n=3. *P<0.05 vs untreated control group. †P<0.01 vs doxorubicin group. FIG. 5C is a representative western blot of Bax and α-actin proteins in murine hearts harvested 7 days after concomitant administration of Ad-hBRCA1 (40 μl of 10 10 PFU, i.v.) and doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, i.p.).
 FIG. 6 shows results from co-immunoprecipitation analysis for BRCA1 and p53 interaction. BRCA1 physically interacts with p53 in order to regulate p53 activity in a context dependent manner. Proteins were extracted after treatment and equal amounts (100 μg) of lysates were resolved by SDS PAGE. The upper panel shows the immunoprecipitation with anti-p53 antibody and immunoblotting for BRCA1. The lower panel shows immunoprecipitation with anti-BRCA1 antibodies and immunoblotting for p53.
 FIG. 7 shows results of western blot analysis for phosphorylated p53 and total p53 levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. GAPDH was used as loading control. Phospho-p53 antibodies were directed against serine 15 of p53 protein.
 FIGS. 8A and 8B show representative western blots of p53 and α-actin in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCM) infected with either 10 MOI AdhBRCA1 or Ad-null vector for 48 hours before being exposed for 24 hours to ( FIG. 8A ) a hypoxic environment (1% O2) or ( FIG. 8B ) H 2 O 2 (50 μM). There was minimal expression of p53 in untreated control cells.
 FIG. 9 shows results of cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion on p53 expression in the heart. Total RNA was extracted from the hearts of 32-week old female mice (n=3 per group) to determine transcript levels of p53. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 vs. WT. GAPDH was used as internal control.
 FIG. 10 is a bar graph depicting data from experiments demonstrating suppression of doxorubicin-evoked increase in cardiac ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression by Ad-hBRCA1 in mice. RNA was isolated from murine hearts 24 hours after administration of PBS, doxorubicin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) alone or in combination with Ad null vector (40 μl of 10 1 ° PFU, i.v.) or Ad-hBRCA1 (40 μl of 10 10 PFU, i.v.). ATM expression was determined by real-time PCR and normalized against corresponding GAPDH levels. Data are presented as mean±SD. n=3; *P<0.05 vs PBS group.
 FIG. 11 shows results of flow cytometric analysis of AnnexinV positive cardiomyocytes after various treatments. The effect of pifithrin-α on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, with or without overexpression of BRCA1 was examined. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicate. “*” is indicative of p<0.05 and “**” is indicative of p<0.01.
 FIGS. 12A and 12B show results of cardiomyocyte specific inactivation of BRCA1 in mice. FIG. 12A is a diagram depicting the positions of loxP sites flanking exon 11 of mouse BRCA1 gene and primer binding sites for polymerase chain reaction. Exon 11 is the largest exon of BRCA1 in the mouse and spans about 3.4 kb. As shown in FIG. 12B , Cre-mediated deletion of exon 11 of BRCA1 was predominantly detected only in the hearts of 12 week old mice, due to primer set 004 and 006, while in other organs except the heart, undeleted BRCA1 was detected due to primer set 004 and 005. In flox heterozygotes (αMHC-Cre tg/+ ; BRCA1 f1/+ ), where Cre transgene was present, partial deletion of BRCA1 alleles was detected as marked by the arrow.
 FIGS. 13A through 13G show results of cardiac remodeling and ventricular function in mice with cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion following myocardial infarction (MI). FIG. 13A shows post-MI left ventricular infarct size of hearts from CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− as compared to WT mice. Representative H&E stained photomicrographs of LV sections from WT, CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− male mice 4 weeks after MI induction are provided. The scatter plot of LV infarct sizes is expressed as percent of infarcted endocardial perimeter to total endocardial perimeter (n=6-9, *p<0.05 vs WT). FIG. 13B shows the cross sectional area (CSA) of septal cardiomyocytes 4 weeks after MI induction. The scatter plot depicts the mean of approximately 300 transversely sectioned cardiomyocytes from the septal region of each heart, **p<0.01 vs WT. CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice, relative to WT mice. FIG. 13C shows heart to body weight (HW/BW) ratios. FIG. 13D shows left-ventricular radius-to-septum thickness (r/h) ratios (n=6-9, *p<0.05 vs WT). FIG. 13E shows LV compliance, as determined by the slope of the end-diastolic-pressure-volume relationship (EDPVR) in CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice compared to WT mice 4 weeks post-MI. FIG. 13F shows LV performance (ejection fraction and fractional shortening) 4 weeks post-MI induction, as measured by 2D-echocardiography in CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice relative to WT mice. n=4-6, **p<0.01, *p<0.05 vs WT. FIG. 13G shows M-mode representative photographs obtained after echocardiography from infarcted mice.
 FIGS. 14A and 14B show susceptibility of mice with cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion to mortality related to myocardial infarction (MI). FIG. 14A provides Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrating the increased susceptibility of mice with cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion to mortality related to MI. Left anterior descending coronary arteries were ligated to induce MI in 10-12 week old male WT (n=39), CM-BRCA1 +/− (n=19) and CM-BRCA1 −/− (n=18) mice. Loss of CM BRCA1 expression increased MI-associated mortality. *p<0.05 vs WT. FIG. 14B shows representative photographs of unruptured ventricles from WT mice and ruptured left ventricle (arrow) from CM-BRCA1 −/− mice 2 days after coronary ligation.
 FIGS. 15A through 15D show the cardiac phenotype of mice with cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion. FIG. 15A shows representative H&E stained sections of hearts from 10-12 week old male WT, CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice. FIG. 15B shows a cross sectional area (CSA) of septal cardiomyocytes, FIG. 15C shows heart weight-to-body weight (HW/BW) ratio. FIG. 15D shows LV radius-to-septum thickness (r/h).
 FIGS. 16A through 16C show results of cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion on pro-apoptotic signaling in the heart after MI. FIG. 16A shows representative micrographs and the quantification of TUNEL-positive nuclei (arrowheads) in LV sections obtained from male CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice 4 weeks post-MI induction (n=4, approximately 1000 nuclei were counted over several fields of the remote myocardium. Data are mean±SD, **p<0.01 and *p<0.05 vs WT). FIG. 16B shows Bax and Bcl-2 levels 4 weeks post-MI. Values represent the changes in Bax/Bcl-2 ratios after normalization to GAPDH. n=3, *p<0.05 vs WT. FIG. 16C shows representative high resolution micrographs of TUNEL-positive nuclei (arrows) in the LV sections of male WT, CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice 4 weeks after MI induction. Nuclei and cardiomyocytes were visualized using Topro-3a staining and an Alexa-555-tagged α-Myosin heavy chain antibody, respectively.
 FIGS. 17A though D show repair of MI-induced double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) in mice with cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion. Total whole heart protein was extracted 48 hours ( FIGS. 17A and 17C ) and 72 hours ( FIGS. 17B and 17D ) after MI induction to determine the levels of the DSB marker γ H2A.X. n=3; *p<0.05 vs WT, **p<0.01 vs. WT.
 FIG. 18 shows a Kaplan-Meier survival curve of male and female WT littermates as well as cardiomyocyte-specific BRCA1 homozygous (CM-BRCA1 −/− ) and heterozygous (CM-BRCA1 +/− ) knockout mice. Mice homozygous for a floxed BRCA1 allele (BRCA1 f1/f1 ) were crossed with heterozygous mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC-Cre tg/+ ) promoter. Mice demonstrating postnatal inactivation of BRCA1 (−/−; αMHC-Cre tg/+ ; BRCA1 f1/f1 and +/−; αMHC-Cre tg/+ ; BRCA1 f1/+ ) were identified as CM-BRCA1 −/− mice while littermates not expressing the Cre transgene were used as WT controls (**p<0.01).
 FIGS. 19A through 19D show acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) and malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) expression in the hearts of WT, CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice. Total RNA and protein were extracted from the hearts of 32-week old female mice (n=3 per group) to determine levels of ACC1 transcripts ( FIG. 19A ), ACC2 transcripts ( FIG. 19B ), total ACC (ACC1+ACC2) and phospho(Ser 79)-ACC protein levels ( FIG. 19C ) and MCD transcripts ( FIG. 19D ). Positive values indicate fold increases and negative values indicate fold decreases relative to the control WT group. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 vs. WT.
 FIGS. 20A through 20C show PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ levels in the hearts of WT, CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice. Total RNA was extracted from the hearts of 32-week old female mice (n=3 per group) to determine transcript levels of PPARα ( FIG. 20A ), PPARβ ( FIG. 20B ) and PPARγ ( FIG. 20C ). Positive values indicate fold increases and negative values indicate fold decreases relative to the control WT group. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 vs. WT.
 FIGS. 21A through 21D show downstream PPAR target levels in the hearts of WT, CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice. Total RNA was extracted from the hearts of 32-week old female mice (n=3 per group) to determine transcript levels of GLUT1 ( FIG. 21A ), GLUT4 ( FIG. 21B ), CD36 ( FIG. 21C ) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1; FIG. 21D ). Positive values indicate fold increases and negative values indicate fold decreases relative to the control WT group. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 vs. WT.
 FIG. 22 shows AMPK and Akt pathways as well as PGC1α levels in the hearts of WT, CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice. Total protein was extracted from the hearts of 32-week old female mice (n=3 per group) to determine levels of total and phospho-Akt, total and phospho-AMPK, and PGC1α. GAPDH was used as a loading control.
 FIGS. 23A through 23E shows results from experiments demonstrating BRCA1 protects endothelial cells against apoptosis. In FIG. 23A ad-null or ad-BRCA1 infected HUVECs were treated with TNFα (20 ng/ml) for 24 hours. Cells were harvested for Annexin V-FITC and Propidium Iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. Total apoptotic cells are shown as mean±SD (n=3 in triplicate, **p<0.01). In FIG. 23B , HUVECs were treated with either siBRCA1 (10 nM) or scrambled siRNA (10 nM) for 24 hours. BRCA1-silenced and control HUVECs were treated with TNFα (20 ng/ml), stained with Annexin V-FITC and Propidium Iodide, and analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of total apoptotic cells are presented as mean±SD (n=3 in triplicate, **p<0.01). In FIG. 23C lysates from adenovirus-infected HUVECs treated with TNFα (20 ng/ml, 24 hours) were collected for cleaved caspase-3 and GAPDH western blot analysis. In FIG. 23D DNA extracted from ad-null or ad-BRCA1 infected HUVECs that had been treated with TNFα (20 ng/ml) for 24 hours was used for DNA fragmentation assay (M: Marker, lane 1: ad-null, lane 2: Ad-null+TNFα, lane 3: ad-BRCA1, lane 4: Ad-BRCA1+TNFα). In FIG. 23E ad-null or ad-BRCA1 infected HUVECs were treated with 2 μM doxorubicin for 24 hours before flow cytometry analysis was performed using Annexin V-FITC and Propidium Iodide staining. Data was calculated as the percentage of total apoptotic cells and presented as mean±SD (n=3 in triplicate, **p<0.01).
 FIGS. 24A through 24I show results from experiments demonstrating adenoviral BRCA1 restores the endothelial function following detrimental TNFα treatment. In FIG. 24A ad-null or ad-BRCA1 infected cells were trypsinized and seeded in the presence and absence of TNFα (20 ng/ml) on coated inserts and a colorimetric assay was performed after 24 hours. Migration was calculated as a percentage of ad-null controls. (n=4, **p<0.01). In FIG. 24B , ad-null or ad-BRCA1 infected HUVECs were seeded onto matrigel in the presence or absence of TNFα (20 ng/ml). Images were taken 5 hours after seeding (original magnification 20×). In FIG. 24C data was semi-quantitatively analyzed by counting tubular structures in four fields per group. Data is presented as mean±SD (n=3 in triplicate, *p<0.05, **p<0.01). HUVECs infected with ad-null or ad-BRCA1 were treated for 24 hours with TNFα (20 ng/ml). VCAM1 ( FIG. 24D , FIG. 24E ), ICAM1 ( FIG. 24F , FIG. 24G ) and E-selectin ( FIG. 24H , FIG. 24I ) protein and transcript expression were determined in cell extracts via western blots and real-time PCR, respectively. GAPDH was used as a loading control for western blots and as a housekeeping gene for real-time PCR. Data are expressed as mean±SD (n=3, **p<0.01).
 FIGS. 25A and 25B show results from experiments demonstrating BRCA1 overexpression leads to p21-mediated but p53 independent growth arrest in response to TNFα. In FIG. 25A cell cycle progression was assessed after adenoviral (ad-null or ad-BRCA1) infection of HUVECs and 24 hours of TNFα (20 ng/ml) treatment followed by Propidium Iodide staining coupled with flow cytometry. The percent of cells in G 0 /G 1 , S and G 2 phases are respectively indicated as C, E and I. FIG. 25B shows western blot analyses of GADD45, p21 and p53 from HUVEC extracts. GAPDH was used as a loading control.
 FIG. 26 is a bar graph demonstrating reduction of TNFα-induced reactive oxygen species production in HUVECs by BRCA1 overexpression. Ad-null or Ad-BRCA1 infected HUVECs were harvested and seeded with or without TNFα (20 ng/ml). Intracellular ROS production was determined by measuring the intensity of DCF fluorescence after 12 hours. Data are presented as mean±SD (n=3).
 FIGS. 27A through 27D show results from experiments demonstrating BRCA1 overexpression promotes neoangiogenesis in the ischemic hind limb. Hind limb ischemia was performed by ligation and excision of the left femoral artery. Both ad-BRCA1 and ad-GFP (20 μl of 10 10 PFU/ml each) was delivered locally. Following 8 days of ischemia, perfusion was assessed by Laser Doppler flowmetry as depicted in FIG. 27A . FIG. 27B is a bar graph depicting data calculated as the recovery of blood flow to the ischemic foot normalized to the contralateral foot. Values are shown as mean±SEM (n=6), *p<0.05. FIG. 27C shows a time course for recovery of blood flow in the ischemic hind limb. Values are shown as mean±SEM (n=4-8), *p<0.05. FIG. 27D shows capillary density as determined in frozen gastrocnemius sections by rhodamine-conjugated isolectin-B4 (arrowheads). Arterioles were discriminated with FITC-conjugated smooth muscle α-actin (arrows). Quantitative results are represented as mean±SEM.
 FIGS. 28A through 28E show eNOS/phospho-eNOS, Akt/phospho-Akt and VEGFa protein and RNA expression. Total protein and RNA were extracted from ad-null or ad-BRCA1 infected HUVECs treated thereafter with TNFα for 24 hours. As shown in FIGS. 28A and 28C , TNFα markedly elevated eNOS protein levels in BRCA1-overexpressing cells. As shown in FIGS. 28B and 28D , TNFα significantly raised Akt activation in BRCA1-overexpressing cells as determined by western blotting. As shown in FIG. 28E VEGFa expression, as quantified by real-time PCR, was significantly increased in TNFα-treated BRCA1-overexpressing cells. Data are presented as mean±SEM of three independent experiments (*p<0.05, **p<0.01).
 FIGS. 29A and 29B show apoptosis in HUVECs following 24 hours of exposure to TNFα. In FIG. 29A , HUVECs were treated with 10 ng/ml, 20 ng/ml or 50 ng/ml of TNFα for 24 hours before the extent of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry coupled with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Quadrants S2 (Annexin V-FITC and PI positive cells) and S4 (Annexin V-FITC positive only) show early and late apoptotic endothelial cells, respectively. The percent of total apoptotic cells (S2+S4) are presented and represent three independent experiments performed in triplicates. **p<0.01 In FIG. 29B , proteins were extracted from HUVECs treated for 24 hours with TNFα (10 ng/ml, 20 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml). Cleaved caspase-3 and GAPDH (loading control) levels were determined by western blotting.
 FIGS. 30A and 30B show adenoviral infection efficiency and BRCA1 overexpression in HUVECs. FIG. 30A shows GFP expression in HUVECs 24 hours after transfection with ad-GFP (20 MOI). Approximately 80% of the cells were positive for the green fluorescent protein. In FIG. 30B HUVECs were infected for 24 hours with 20 MOI of ad-null or ad-BRCA1. Proteins extracted from cell lysates were collected and subjected to western blotting. Immunoblots were probed with antibodies directed against BRCA1 and actin which acted as the loading control.
 FIG. 31 is a bar graph showing protection of HUVECs against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis by BRCA1 overexpression. To assess the effect of doxorubicin on endothelial cell apoptosis, Ad-null or Ad-BRCA1 infected HUVECs were treated with 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 μM of doxorubicin for 24 h and flow cytometry analysis was performed using Annexin V-FITC and Propidium Iodide staining. Data was calculated as the percentage of total apoptotic cells and presented as mean±SD (n=3 in triplicate, *p<0.01 vs. Ad-null group, †p<0.01 vs. Ad-null+2 μM Dox group).
 FIGS. 32A through 32D show BRCA1 limiting atherosclerosis lesion formation in vivo. FIG. 32A is a representative micrograph of oil red O-defined atherosclerotic lesions and FIG. 32C shows quantification graphically of bordeaux-stained plaque areas in the aortic roots of individual ApoE −/− mice fed the Western diet for 4 weeks. N=5; *, P<0.01 vs. ad-null group. FIG. 32B shows representative oil red O-defined atherosclerotic lesions in en face preparations of descending aortas and FIG. 32D shows macrophage sequestration as defined by F4/80 staining in the aortic roots of ApoE −/− mice maintained on the Western diet for 16 weeks. Mice were administered ad-null or ad-BRCA1 every second week. N=6.
 FIGS. 33A through 33D provide evidence of reduced BRCA1 expression in human carotid artery plaques. FIG. 33A is an illustration detailing where plaque containing and “normal” control sections were collected from carotid endarterectomy samples. FIG. 33B shows results of analysis of BRCA1 transcript levels in these samples. FIG. 33C shows results of analysis of BRCA1 protein levels in these samples. FIG. 33D shows results of BRCA1 immunohistochemical staining in these samples. N=3-4; *, P<0.05 vs. control group.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest killer of adults in North America (Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2008 Update. A Report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee). CVD includes diseases caused by atherosclerosis, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arterial blood vessel walls, resulting from endothelial cell dysfunction, high plasma cholesterol levels, foam cell formation and local inflammation. CHD is caused by the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions in coronary arteries which results in acute coronary syndrome (ACS; i.e. unstable angina & myocardial infarction). In 2005 there were estimated to be 772,000 ACS patients in the U.S. (Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2008 Update. A Report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee). Approximately 1 in 5 deaths in 2004 were due to CHD, with a total U.S. and Canadian mortality of over 500,000 individuals. It is estimated that over 100 million North Americans have high blood cholesterol levels placing them in a border-line high risk, or high risk category of developing CHD. The total U.S. prevalence of ischemic stroke in 2005 was approximately 4.6 million and the annual incidence for both first time and recurrent attacks was around 780,000 (Abramson and Huckell, Can J Cardiol 2005 21(2): 997-1006). PAD is characterized by restricted blood flow to the extremities (e.g. legs, feet) resulting in cramping and in severe cases loss of the limb. According to the Society of Interventional Radiology, people over the age of 50 who smoke or have diabetes are at increased risk of developing PAD. Sixteen percent of individuals in North America have PAD. There are about 30 million people worldwide with PAD, half of which are asymptomatic. The estimated prevalence for PAD is 4% of the population over the age of 40 (Abramson and Huckell, Can J Cardiol 2005 21(2):997-1006). The survival rate for severe symptomatic patients is approximately 25% (Abramson and Huckell Can J Cardiol 2005 21(2): 997-1006).
 Changes in diet and increased aerobic exercise can significantly reduce the risk factors associated with CVD (Green et al. J Appl Physiol. 2008 105(2): 766-768). However, most individuals do not significantly change their life style habits but instead rely primarily upon pharmaceutical intervention for the alleviation of CVD (Kim and Beckles Am J Prev Med. 2004 27(1):1-7). There are a number of different classes of drugs to treat the different types of CVD. These include antihypertensives (e.g. COZAAR®; pharmaceutical preparation used in the treatment of hypertension; E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Del.), antiplatelet agents (e.g. PLAVIX® (pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases; Sanofi-Aventis Corporation, Paris, France), anticoagulants (e.g. COUMADIN®; Hemorrhagic Producing Drug; Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharma Company Corporation, Wilmington, Del.), thrombolytics (Activase®; a tissue plasminogen activator; Genentech, Inc. Corporation South San Francisco, Calif.) and antihyperlipidemics (e.g. Lipitor®; pharmaceutical preparations for use in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders and cholesterol reduction; Pfizer Ireland Pharmaceuticals General Partnership, Dublin, Ireland).
 When pharmaceutical intervention is unsuccessful in treating CVD, invasive medical procedures may be required. For example, severe atherosclerotic blockage of the coronary blood vessels may require treatment via percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and/or coronary artery stent placement, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). These procedures are not without significant risk (Raja and Dreyfus, J Card Surg. 2006 21(6):605-12; Smith et al. J ACC 2001 37(8):3019-3041). For example, there is a 1% to 2% chance of death resulting from CABG (Raja and Dreyfus, J Card Surg. 2006 21(6):605-12). Further, a significant percentage of patients will likely need a secondary procedure within a few years (e.g. due to restenosis; Raja and Dreyfus, J Card Surg. 2006 21(6):605-12; Kipshidze et al. Curr Pharm Des. 2004 10(4): 337-348).
 Diverse cardiac insults, including hypoxia, ischemia, genotoxic stress and myocardial infarction, result in complex structural alterations, inciting both early and late adverse remodeling, heart failure and death (MacLellan and Schneider, Circ Res. 1997; 81(2):137-144; Kumar and Jugdutt, J Lab Clin Med. 2003; 142(5):288-297; Jessup and Brozena, N Engl J. Med. 2003; 348(20):2007-2018). These diverse pathophysiological stressors evoke marked changes in local and systemic signaling pathways, which in turn promote rapid cardiomyocyte apoptosis, a common pathway of cell death in this setting (Feuerstein, G. Z. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999; 13(4):289-294; Dorn and Brown, Trends Cardiovasc Med. 1999; 9(1-2):26-34; Bishopric et al. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2001; 1(2):141-150). An imbalance between activation of apoptotic pathways and cell survival factors either through genetic and/or epigenetic pathways, determines the fate of cardiomyocytes, and their resistance to apoptosis. Preservation of structure and function of the myocardium is critically dependent upon improving the survival of existing cardiomyocytes, through strategies that limit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and DNA damage.
 The inventors have now found that BRCA1 can be used to limit cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and prevent aberrant cardiac remodeling.
 The inventors determined that BRCA1 is expressed in the heart under basal conditions and is markedly upregulated post myocardial infarction (MI). In these experiments, BRCA1 transcript expression in the ventricles, atria, aortas, livers, testes and ovaries of naive wild-type mice as well as wild-type mice that had undergone experimental MI were evaluated by real-time PCR (n=3 per organ). Under basal conditions, BRCA1 was highly expressed in the testes and ovaries, and at a low level in left ventricular tissues (see FIGS. 2A and 2B ). Post MI, the expression of endogenous BRCA1 mRNA in remote myocardial tissues rose significantly at 36 hours (3.1±1.0 fold, p<0.01), peaked at 72 hours (16.2±1.8 fold, p<0.01), declined at 1 week and returned to basal levels after 4 weeks compared with sham-operated mice (see FIG. 2C ).
 The potential of systemic Ad-BRCA1 delivery to attenuate doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction in mice was evaluated. Wild-type mice were treated with either Ad-null and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (n=3), Ad-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PBS (n=3), Ad-null and doxorubicin (10 mg/kg), or Ad-BRCA1 (40 μl of 10 10 PFU/ml) and doxorubicin (n=7). Ad-null or Ad-BRCA1 was administered intravenously via the tail vein, whereas doxorubicin was administered intraperitoneally. Intravenous delivery of Ad-BRCA1 resulted in an increased myocardial expression of BRCA1. Echocardiography was performed by a double-blinded investigator at day 3 and day 7, post surgery, respectively, in all groups. Whereas doxorubicin resulted in an impairment in cardiac function, as assessed by percent systolic ejection fraction ( FIG. 3A (day 3) and FIG. 3B (day 7)) and fractional shortening ( FIG. 3C ), Ad-BRCA1 systemic delivery completely prevented these phenotypes, as early as 3-days post-doxorubicin treatment.
 BRCA-1 induced gain of function and protection against genotoxic and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis was also examined in vitro. Cultured rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs) were infected with 10, 50 and 100 MOIs of adenoviral construct to determine the optimum viral titer. Ad-GFP was used as a reporter construct. Cardiomyocytes were incubated with the virus (human BRCA1 or GFP) for 48 hours after which expression of human BRCA1 or GFP were determined. Expression of BRCA1 was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blotting (see FIGS. 4A and 4B ) and expression of GFP was analyzed by live cell video microscopy. GFP expressing cells were found to comprise 95-98% of the total cell population and were beating at the time of imaging (see FIG. 4C ). Based on this observation, 10 MOI was determined to be the best of the three tested concentrations of the adenoviral construct. Ad-BRCA1 overexpressing NRVMs were treated with either doxorubicin or hydrogen peroxide. Measurement of cardiomyocyte apoptosis was performed by flow cytometry (AnnexinV-FITC and PI staining) and western blotting (cleaved caspase-3). Ad-BRCA1 overexpressing NRVMs demonstrated a profound reduction in doxorubicin- and H 2 0 2 -induced apoptosis. See FIGS. 5A through 5C .
 p53 has been suggested to play an important role in aberrant cardiac remodeling. Experiments were performed to access the interaction of BRCA1 with p53 in cardiomyocytes. A co-immunoprecipitation assay, which indicated that BRCA1 physically interacts with p53 in cardiomyocytes was performed. Overexpression of BRCA1 alone in cardiomyocytes upregulated BRCA1 and p53 association (lane 2, FIG. 6 ), while treatment of cardiomyocytes with doxorubicin alone led to a decline in this association (lane 3, FIG. 6 ). Additionally, doxorubicin treatment, in the presence of overexpressing BRCA1 strengthened this association (lane 4, FIG. 6 ). These data suggest that in cardiomyocytes, in response to doxorubicin, BRCA1 decreases the levels of p53 by physically associating with it.
 BRCA1 was demonstrated to protect NRVM via inhibition of p53 and phosphorylated p53. BRCA1 and doxorubicin, on their own, both upregulated p53 in a nearly identical manner (lane 2 and 3, FIG. 7 ). However, in BRCA1-overexpressing NRVMs, doxorubicin treatment resulted in significant reduction of total p53 expression (lane 4, FIG. 7 ) and a concomitant reduction in cardiomyocyte apoptosis (see FIG. 5 ). Doxorubicin also activated serine-15 phosphorylation of p53 and in the presence of BRCA1, a reduction in phospho-p53 was observed (lane 4, FIG. 7 ).
 BRCA1 overexpressing neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCM) markedly limited the increase in p53 protein levels evoked by hypoxic stress or H202 (see FIGS. 8A and 8B ).
 Cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion induced p53 expression in the mouse heart (see FIG. 9 ) as measured by real-time PCR.
 As shown in FIG. 10 , ad-hBRCA1 also suppressed of doxorubicin-evoked increase in cardiac ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression by Ad-hBRCA1.
 To further evaluate the potential role of BRCA1 to modulate p53 as a mechanism of cardioprotection, a chemical inhibitor of p53, pifithrin-α (PFT-α), which has been shown to inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis (Komarov et al. Science. 1999; 285(5434):1733-1737) was used. The addition of PFT-α to cardiomyocytes treated with doxorubicin led to significant reductions in the number of apoptotic cells ( FIG. 11 , p<0.01 vs doxorubicin only), indicating that doxorubicin-induced apoptosis is dependent on p53. BRCA1-overexpressing cardiomyocytes, when treated with doxorubicin and PFT-α both, showed no further reduction in number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes (see FIG. 11 ), quantitatively similar to the BRCA1 overexpression with doxorubicin treatment group respectively (see FIG. 11 ). These results indicate that BRCA1 mediated cardiomyocyte protection against doxorubicin requires p53.
 Cre-loxP technology was used to generate BRCA1-cardiac specific knockout mice. Specifically, mice wherein the expression of Cre recombinase is driven by cardiomyocyte specific α-Myosin Heavy Chain promoter (αMHC-Cre tg/+ ) were crossed with mice whereby BRCA1 exon-11 was flanked by two loxP sites (BRCA1 f1/f1 ), thus giving rise to cardiomyocyte specific BRCA1 knockout (CM-BRCA1-KO) mice (αMHC-Cre tg/+ ; BRCA1 f1/f1 ) (see FIGS. 12A and 12B ). There was no basal adverse cardiac phenotype in these mice, as assessed by echocardiography, up to 12 weeks of age. Survival was similar at this age.
 Mice with cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion do not display any adverse cardiac phenotype as measured by H&E staining of heart sections from 10-12 week old male WT, CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice ( FIG. 15A ), comparison of cross sectional area (CSA) of septal cardiomyocytes ( FIG. 15B ), heart weight-to-body weight (HW/BW) ratios ( FIG. 15C ) and LV radius-to-septum thickness (r/h) ( FIG. 15D ). Also see Tables 1 and 2.
Baseline echocardiographic measurements
performed on 10-12 week old male mice
Heart rate (bpm)
445 ± 25
433 ± 65
410 ± 29
0.376 ± 0.051
0.350 ± 0.046
0.390 ± 0.039
0.274 ± 0.050
0.239 ± 0.037
0.279 ± 0.041
LVEDA (cm 2 )
0.116 ± 0.02
0.091 ± 0.008
0.118 ± 0.02
LVESA (cm 2 )
0.061 ± 0.020
0.045 ± 0.017
0.058 ± 0.021
0.48 ± 0.06
0.50 ± 0.17
0.50 ± 0.10
0.61 ± 0.07
0.65 ± 0.20
0.62 ± 0.10
LV Posterior Wall
0.062 ± 0.004
0.060 ± 0.002
0.063 ± 0.004
LVEDD; left ventricular end-diastolic dimension
LVESD; left ventricular end-systolic dimension
LVEDA; left ventricular end-diastolic area
LVESA; left ventricular end-systolic area
LVEF; left ventricular ejection fraction
Baseline Hemodynamic Assessment of Ventricular
Performance in 10-12 week old male mice
LV End Systolic
6.2 ± 0.9
7.5 ± 0.8
8.3 ± 1.1
LV End Diastolic
6.4 ± 2.1
8.5 ± 1.4
9.28 ± 1.1
LV End Systolic
99 ± 26
111 ± 6
95 ± 12
LV End Diastolic
5.4 ± 8.8
6.2 ± 4.7
12.6 ± 8.0
Stroke Volume (μl)
3.1 ± 0.13
3.7 ± 0.58
3.5 ± 0.9
41.9 ± 3.6
40.7 ± 7.7
35.5 ± 6.6
1760 ± 381
1506 ± 355
1599 ± 250
99 ± 21
112 ± 26
134 ± 50
6838 ± 293
5560 ± 929
6216 ± 908
−6587 ± 2105
−5079 ± 1113
−5623 ± 585
 However, mice with cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion displayed adverse cardiac remodeling and poor ventricular function following myocardial infarction (MI; see FIGS. 13A through 13G ). Specifically, post-MI left ventricular infarct size of hearts from CM-BRCA1 and CM-BRCA1 −/− was greater than those from WT mice (see FIG. 13A ). CSA of septal cardiomyocytes 4 weeks after MI induction were smaller in CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice relative to their WT littermates (see FIG. 13B ). CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice also exhibited lower HW/BW ratios (see FIG. 13C ) and greater LV radius-to-septum thickness (r/h) ratios (see FIG. 13D ) relative to WT mice. LV compliance, as determined by the slope of the end-diastolic-pressure-volume relationship (EDPVR), was lower in CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice compared to WT mice 4 weeks post-MI (see FIG. 13E ). LV performance, in particular ejection fraction and fractional shortening, 4 weeks post-MI induction, as measured by 2D-echocardiography, was lower in CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− mice relative to WT mice (see FIG. 13F ). M-mode representative photographs obtained after echocardiography from infarcted mice also showed a marked increase in LV dilation, indicating poor LV function in CM-BRCA1 +/− and CM-BRCA1 −/− compared to WT mice (see FIG. 13G ). Also see Table 3.
Hemodynamic Assessment of Ventricular Performance in anesthetize
mice after 4 weeks of MI using Millar catheter
LV End Systolic
6.51 ± 2.11
14.73 ± 6.1*
11.53 ± 3.8*
LV End Diastolic
7.98 ± 4.2
16.23 ± 5.56*
13.32 ± 3.5*
LV End Systolic
104 ± 14
83 ± 15*
89 ± 6*
LV End Diastolic
21 ± 8
19 ± 14
22 ± 5
Stroke Volume (μl)
4.75 ± 1.4
2.3 ± 1.3*
2.97 ± 0.6*
46.3 ± 4.0
21.0 ± 11.4**
23.16 ± 4.9**
2169 ± 819
1105 ± 577*
1497 ± 330
302 ± 111
138 ± 90*
155 ± 57*
6820 ± 1226
4173 ± 1021**
4890 ± 813*
−5747 ± 1183
−3553 ± 833*
−4240 ± 1035*
**p < 0.01 Vs WT,
*p < 0.05 Vs WT.
(n = 5-6/group).
 LV hemodynamics were measured with a 1.4 F micromanometer conductance catheter inserted in the LV cavity via the right carotid artery. The conductance volume is expressed in relative volume units (RVU). The ejection fraction (EF) was computed via the formula [(stroke volume/volume at dp/dtmax)×100] using RVU.
 Mice with cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion were also found to exhibit increased susceptibility to mortality related to myocardial infarction (MI). See Kaplan curves of FIG. 14A . In these experiments, the left anterior descending coronary arteries were ligated to induce MI in 10-12 week old male WT (n=39), CM-BRCA1 +/− (n=19) and CM-BRCA1 −/− (n=18) mice. Representative photographs of unruptured ventricles from WT mice and ruptured left ventricle (arrow) from CM-BRCA1 −/− mice 2 days after coronary ligation are shown in FIG. 14B .
 Cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion was shown to activate pro-apoptotic signaling in the heart after MI (see FIGS. 16A through 16C ) as indicated by western blotting.
 Cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion was found to impair repair of MI-induced double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs ( FIGS. 17A through D) as indicated by western blotting.
 Male and female WT littermates as well as cardiomyocyte-specific BRCA1 heterozygous (CM-BRCA1 +/− ) mice exhibited increased survival as compared to homozygous (CM-BRCA1 −/− ) knockout mice (See FIG. 18 ).
 Cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2; FIGS. 19B and 19C )) and malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD; FIG. 19D ) expression in the heart. Panels A, B and D were derived from real-time PCR; panel C was measured by western blotting.
 Cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion also reduced PPARα ( FIG. 20A ) and PPARγ ( FIG. 20C ) levels in the heart (as measured by real-time PCR), as well as activation of downstream PPAR targets, GLUT4 ( FIG. 21B ), CD36 ( FIG. 21C ) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a; FIG. 21D )) in the heart, as measured by real-time PCR.
 Further, cardiomyocyte (CM)-specific BRCA1 deletion activated AMPK and Akt pathways while reducing PGC1α levels in the heart ( FIG. 22 ) as measured by western blotting.
 The inventors have now found that BRCA1 can also be used to limit inflammation-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and to restore endothelial function.
 As shown in FIG. 23A , TNFα evoked significant apoptosis in ad-null infected HUVECs (p<0.01), an effect that was absent in similarly treated BRCA1-overexpressing HUVECs. In contrast, a greater number of apoptotic events were observed in TNFα-treated BRCA1-silenced HUVECs than in TNFα-treated HUVECs that had been previously incubated with scrambled siRNA (p<0.01; FIG. 23B ). BRCA1-overexpression also dampened TNFα-associated increase in cleaved caspase-3 protein levels (see FIG. 23C ) as well as TNFα-induced DNA fragmentation (see FIG. 23D ). While apoptosis was prevalent in doxorubicin-treated ad-null infected HUVECs, HUVECs transfected with ad-BRCA1 appeared to be protected against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis (p<0.01; FIG. 23E ).
 BRCA1 was also demonstrated to restore endothelial function. TNFα significantly hampered the migratory capacity of HUVECs (p<0.01), an effect that could be restored in BRCA1 over-expressing HUVECs (p<0.01) (see FIG. 24A ). As shown in FIGS. 24B and 24C , the capacity of HUVECs to form vessel-like tubular structures was reduced in the presence of TNFα (p<0.05). There was no appreciable difference in tube formation ability between the ad-null treated and ad-BRCA1 treated groups for up to 18 hours after treatment. In BRCA1-overexpressing HUVECs, generation of tube-like structures was unaffected by TNFα as early as 5 hours post-treatment (see FIGS. 24B and 24C ). At the transcript level, ad-null treated HUVEC VCAM1, ICAM1 and E-selectin expression in ad-null treated HUVECs were respectively upregulated 1500 times, 400 times and 200 times (p<0.01) following TNFα treatment (see FIGS. 24E , 24 G and 24 I). These TNFα-elicited increases were significantly dampened in BRCA1-overexpressing HUVECs (p<0.01; FIGS. 24E , 24 G and 24 I). Protein levels of VCAM1, ICAM1 and E-selectin, as measured by western blotting, followed a similar response pattern to TNFα stimulation and ad-BRCA1 transfection (see FIGS. 24D , 24 F and 24 H).
 BRCA1 was also demonstrated to promote growth arrest. BRCA1 has previously been shown to promote reversible growth arrest under stress in order to allow repair via upregulation of GADD45 or p21, in both a p53-dependent or -independent manner (Murray et al. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 November; 35(Pt 5):1342-6; Gilmore et al. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 February; 31(Pt 1):257-62). In contrast, TNFα signaling is associated with an increase in oxidative stress or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which can in turn induce DNA damage. In experiments set forth herein, 12 hours of TNFα treatment resulted in significantly more BRCA1-overexpressing cells entering the growth arrest phase (G 0 /G 1 ) compared to similarly stressed ad-null treated HUVECs (p<0.01; FIG. 25A ). Western blotting showed that TNFα had no influence on the protein levels of p53 and GADD45 but did significantly elevate p21 protein levels in the presence and absence of BRCA1 overexpression (see FIG. 25B ). These results indicate that BRCA1 induces growth arrest in HUVECs treated with TNFα in a p21-dependent but p53-independent manner.
 BRCA1 overexpression also reduced TNFα-induced reactive oxygen species production in HUVECs. See FIG. 26 .
 Ad-null or Ad-BRCA1 infected HUVECs BRCA1 was also demonstrated to improve recovery of ischemic hind limbs. To determine the in vivo significance of BRCA1 overexpression, the capacity for neovascularization after inducing hind limb ischemia was assessed in 8-10 week old BALE/c mice. Mice that had received locally administered ad-BRCA1 had significantly greater (p<0.01) limb perfusion as early as day 8 post-surgery in comparison to ad-GFP treated control mice (see FIGS. 27A , 27 B and 27 C). Increased limb perfusion was consistently and significantly (p<0.01 versus control) higher in ad-BRCA1 mice throughout the timepoints (days 16 and 28) studied (see FIG. 27C ). The enhanced recovery of blood flow after hind limb ischemia was associated with a higher capillary density in ad-BRCA1 administered mice in comparison to controls (p<0.01; FIG. 27D ).
 BRCA1 also promoted eNOS, phospho-eNOS, phospho-Akt and VEGFa expression. Since eNOS is essential for endothelial function, the potential regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and phosphorylation by BRCA1 was examined via western blot analysis. The significant reduction in eNOS protein levels following TNFα treatment was completely reversed by BRCA1 overexpression (p<0.01; FIGS. 28A and 28C ). eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 was appreciably raised following concomitant TNFα stimulation and BRCA1 overexpression (see FIGS. 28A and 28C ) as was phospho-Akt protein levels (see FIGS. 28B and 28D ) and VEGFa transcript levels ( FIG. 28E ).
 As shown in FIG. 31 , BRCA1 overexpression also protected HUVECs against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis.
 As shown by these experiments, BRCA1 plays a role in limiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and improving cardiac function in response to genotoxic and oxidative stress. Heart specific deletion of BRCA1 promoted severe systolic dysfunction and limited survival.
 As shown in FIG. 32 , BRCA1 overexpression also limited atherosclerosis lesion formation in vivo. In these experiments, ApoE −/− mice were fed a Western diet for 4 weeks ( FIGS. 32A and 32C ) or 16 weeks ( FIGS. 32B and 32D ). Mice were administered ad-null or ad-BRCA1 every second week. Mice in the 4 week study administered ad-BRCA1 exhibited significantly less stained plaque areas in their aortic roots as compared to mice administered ad-null, and mice in the 16 week study administered ad-BRCA1 exhibited less macrophage sequestration as compared to mice administered ad-null.
 Male 12 week old ApoE −/− mice were fed the Western diet for 4 weeks and were concurrently administered either ad-BRCA1 or ad-GFP (20 μl of 10 10 PFU/ml) on days 0 and 14 via the tail vein. At the end of this diet-adenoviral treatment regime, hearts were embedded in Tissue-Tek O.C.T. and cryosections (5 μm) of the aortic roots were stained with Oil Red 0 for analysis of atherosclerotic lesions.
 An additional group of ApoE −/− mice was maintained on the Western diet for 16 weeks and concomitantly treated on day 0 and every 14 days thereafter with either ad-GFP or ad-BRCA1 (20 μl of 10 10 PFU/ml). At the end of this diet-adenoviral treatment regime, en face preparations of the whole aortas were stained with Oil Red O. Macrophage infiltration into the aortic root was determined in 5 μm sections probed with an F4/80 antibody and visualized with a DAB substrate.
 Further, in humans carotid artery plaques exhibited reduced BRCA1 expression as compared to samples from normal control sections of the carotid artery. See FIGS. 33A through 33D . Carotid artery segments were collected at the time of endarterectomy en bloc from intima to external elastic lamina. Two sections were taken from below (“normal”) and at (plaque containing) the carotid bifurcation. One was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and the other fixed and embedded in Tissue-Tek O.C.T. Human carotid cryosections (4-5 μm) were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, underwent antigen retrieval in 10 mM sodium citrate (pH 6.0), were blocked with BSA (5% BSA-0.5% Tween-20), probed with anti-BRCA1 (Santa Cruz, 1:50) and stained with a DAB substrate.
 Accordingly, an aspect of the present invention relates to use of BRCA1 to inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and/or to improve cardiac function in a subject. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death has been identified as a key mechanism of cell death in acute myocardial infarction, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, the presence of apoptotic cardiomyocytes has been demonstrated in the hearts of humans with end-stage dilated and ischemic cardiomyopathies. Increasing evidence suggests that continual loss of cardiomyocytes via apoptosis actually contributes to the development of the heart failure phenotype and/or progressive cardiac decompensation. Administration of a BRCA1 construct to subjects suffering from conditions including, but not limited to, acute myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury, restenosis, atherosclerosis, vascular disease and/or end-stage dilated and ischemic cardiomyopathies is expected to inhibit further cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improve cardiac function in such subject. Administration of a BRCA1 construct to a subject is also expected to inhibit the development of heart failure phenotype and/or progressive cardiac decompensation due to continual loss of cardiomyocytes via apoptosis. Accordingly, BRCA1 is useful in treating various cardiovascular diseases including, but not limited to, coronary heart disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, intermittent claudication and cerebral vascular disease. In addition, BRCA1 delivery can be used to treat subjects at high risk or very high risk of developing cardiovascular disease, for example subjects suffering from familial cholesterolemia, subjects suffering from peripheral artery disease, wherein delivering BRCA1 increases tissue neovascularization and enhances collateral blood flow of the tissue or limbs, i.e. extremities. BRCA1 can also be administered to prevent or reduce cardiac remodeling in a subject.
 BRCA1 can be delivered alone or in combination with an existing patient care paradigm for cardiovascular disease such as, but not limited to, statins, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), antihyperlipidemics and antihyperglycaemics.
 In one embodiment, BRCA1 is delivered in combination with an angiogenic gene therapy agent such as VEGF which induces blood vessel growth and thus increases blood flow to the heart. In this embodiment, genes for BRCA1 and VEGF can be administered in a single construct, as two separate constructs in single delivery system, or as two separate constructs in separate delivery systems administered simultaneously or at different times.
 It is well-established that an individual having suffered a first acute coronary event will very often undergo a second or subsequent, and oftentimes more serious, second coronary event or events within several months to several years after the first event. In one embodiment of the present invention, BRCA1 is administered to such subjects after the first acute coronary event to prevent or inhibit further damage leading to a second or subsequent coronary event or events.
 As also shown by these experiments, BRCA1 protects endothelial cells against inflammation-induced apoptosis, through a mechanism that involves up-regulation of eNOS and reduced ROS production. Accordingly, administration of a BRCA1 construct is expected to limit aberrant vascular remodeling. These data also indicate that patients with BRCA1 mutations or cancer syndromes may be at exaggerated risk of native and transplant atherosclerosis and graft dysfunction, particularly in the setting of DNA damaging immunosuppressants.
 Accordingly, another aspect of the present invention relates to a method for inhibiting inflammation-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and/or restoring endothelial function in a subject which comprises delivering BRCA1 to endothelial cells. Inhibiting inflammation-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and/or restoring endothelial function in a subject via administration of BRCA1 is expected to be useful in treating or preventing atherosclerosis or promoting regression of atherosclerotic lesions. BRCA1 delivery is also expected to be useful in the treatment of disorders linked to endothelial dysfunction including, but not limited to, pulmonary artery hypertension, systemic hypertension, diabetes, insulin resistance, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and pregnancy induced hypertension.
 Endothelial cell apoptosis, in response to inflammatory, ischemic and hypoxic stressors, and has also been identified as a target for therapies aimed at improving graft patency.
 A wide range of chemotherapy agents have been associated with cardiotoxicity, of which the anthracyclines and related compounds are the most frequently implicated agents. As also shown by experiments herein, delivery of BRCA1 to cardiomyocytes inhibits cardiotoxicity of the anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. Accordingly, another aspect of the present invention relates to a method for inhibiting or decreasing cardiotoxicity in a subject receiving a cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agent comprising delivering BRCA1 to the subject. Systemic, local or adjunctive delivery of BRCA1, for example during bypass surgery or angioplasty, is expected to be useful in rescuing or protecting individuals from chemotherapy induced cardiac failure.
 Inhibiting the cardiotoxicity of such agents through delivery of BRCA1 is expected to allow higher doses of such chemotherapeutic agents to be administered thus enhancing their efficacy for the treatment of cancer. Accordingly, another aspect of the present invention relates to enhancing efficacy of cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agents by delivering BRCA1 to a subject receiving a cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agent so that higher doses of the chemotherapeutic agent can be administered. In this embodiment, BRCA1 can be administered at the same time as the chemotherapeutic agent or prior to administration of the chemotherapeutic agent so that sufficient protective levels of BRCA1 are expressed during administration of the chemotherapeutic agent.
 Further, these experiments indicate that BRCA1 mutant breast and ovarian cancer patients are at higher risk to cardiotoxicity of cardiotoxic chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin and agents similar thereto. Accordingly, another aspect of the present invention relates to assessing expression of BRCA1 or a BRCA1 mutant in a subject suffering from cancer to provide a pharmacogenomic basis to guide chemotherapeutic decision making.
 The experiments set forth herein are also indicative of subjects having a BRCA1 mutation being at higher risk of native and transplant atherosclerosis and graft dysfunction, particularly in the setting of DNA damaging immunosuppressants. It is expected that delivery of BRCA1 to a subject undergoing, for example, a heart transplant donor operation will protect the subject against the development of transplant atherosclerosis in response to immunosuppressants. Thus, another aspect of the present invention relates of a method of protecting against or inhibiting development of transplant atherosclerosis in response to immunosuppressants in a subject at risk which comprises delivering BRCA1 to the subject.
 BRCA1 delivery is also expected to be useful in subjects with hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance or adiposity, to decrease free fatty acid oxidation and/or fatty acid synthesis with resultant treatment of dyslipidemia.
 By “subject”, as used herein it is meant to be inclusive of all animals and in particular mammals such as, but not limited to, humans and dogs as well as agricultural animals such as bovine, ovine, and porcine.
 By “delivering BRCA1”, “BRCA1 delivery”, or “administration of BRCA1” as used herein, it is meant to include delivery of a gene construct comprising a BRCA1 gene or an active fragment thereof to be expressed in cells, delivery of a progenitor cell overexpressing BRCA1 or an active fragment thereof, or delivery of the BRCA1 protein or an active fragment thereof.
 An exemplary active fragment useful in the present invention is the BRCA1 c-terminus domain.
 For purposes of the present invention, when delivering a BRCA1 polynucleotide, a BARD1 antisense is not administered in combination therewith.
 For purposes of the present invention, when delivering a progenitor cell overexpressing BRCA1, the stem cell does not express at least one polypeptide selected from the group consisting of Fosb; NRAP; MEF2A; Furin; and TGFβ1 or and at least one polypeptide selected from the group consisting of integral membrane protein 2A; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4; thymus cell antigen 1, theta; selenoprotein P, plasma 1; and glycoprotein 38.
 For purposes of the present invention, when delivering a BRCA1 protein, a STAT activating agent is not administered therewith as a BRCA/STAT complex.
 By “BRCA1 gene”, for purposes of the present invention, it is meant to include any polynucleotide sequence encoding breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 or a variant or active fragment thereof which maintains tumor suppressor activity and which does not comprise a mutation implicated in the hereditary predisposition to familial breast and ovarian cancers. An exemplary polynucleotide encoding BRCA1 useful in the present invention is human BRCA1 gene (NM — 007294.2). The sequence listing sets forth the polynucleotide sequences of human BRCA1 gene (NM — 007294.2 (SEQ ID NO:1) and known isoforms NM — 007295.2 (SEQ ID NO:2), NM — 007296.2 (SEQ ID NO:3), NM — 007297.2 (SEQ ID NO:4), NM — 007298.2 (SEQ ID NO:5), NM — 007299.2 (SEQ ID NO:6), NM — 007300.2 (SEQ ID NO:7), NM — 007302.2 (SEQ ID NO:8), NM — 007303.2 (SEQ ID NO:9), NM — 007304.2 (SEQ ID NO:10), NM — 007305.2 (SEQ ID NO:11) and BC072418 (SEQ ID NO:12).
 Multiple BRCA1 mutations not encompassed within the present invention have been compiled and can be found in the Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC) database. Also see Fackenthal and Olopade Nature 2007 7: 937-948. There are 27 BRCA1 missense mutations that have been reported which affect 15 codons. Examples of founder mutations that are more common in certain nationalities are: 185delAG in exon 1; 1135insA in exon 11; 1675delA in exon 11; 3171ins5 in exon 11; 4153delA in exon 11; and 5382insC in exon 20. These mutations are mainly in the BRCA1 regions encoding the RING and BRCT domains, which are involved in protein-protein interactions. There are also four known BRCA1 mutations in the first codon (M1I, M1R, M1T, and M1V). The effect of the base change in this first codon is more likely due to translation initiation differences than amino acid substitutions. Additional missense mutations may be due to splicing defects when in proximity to intron-exon junctions. There are over 670 truncating mutations that have been reported for BRCA1, these include nonsense mutations, frame-shift mutations due to small insertions and/or deletions, and mutations within splicing sites. These mutations occur throughout the length of the gene. Larger genomic alterations are also known to result in duplications or deletions of one or more exons, producing premature stop codons. Polynucleotides with any of these mutations are not encompassed within BRCA1 of the present invention.
 In addition to the polynucleotide sequence encoding BRCA1 or an active fragment thereof, gene constructs used in the present invention may further comprise regulatory DNA sequences operably linked thereto. Regulatory DNA sequence may be autologous or heterologous regulatory sequences such as promoters or enhancers, wherein upon expression of these DNA sequences in human cells, including human cells in which the DNA sequences are normally repressed or functionally inactive, BRCA1 is expressed. In such constructs, the regulatory sequences may be operably linked to BRCA1 encoding mature BRCA1 protein or a variant thereof which maintains tumor suppressor activity and which does not comprise a mutation implicated in the hereditary predisposition to familial breast and ovarian cancers. In alternative constructs, the regulatory sequences may be operably linked to a BRCA1 polynucleotide fragment which does not encode full length BRCA1 gene product, but which contains a sufficient portion of the BRCA1 nucleotide sequence to target the genetic construct to the native BRCA1 locus in a host cell wherein the BRCA1 gene may be inactive due to repression or mutation. Upon introduction of such constructs into the host cell, the regulatory sequence is integrated into the host cell genome proximal to the endogenous BRCA1 gene via homologous recombination (“gene targeting”), thereby activating or de-repressing BRCA1 gene expression.
 BRCA1 polynucleotides useful in the present invention include (a) DNA molecules comprising an open reading frame (ORF) with an initiation codon of human BRCA1 gene (NM — 007294.2; SEQ ID NO:1); (b) DNA molecules comprising the coding sequence for the mature BRCA1 gene product of human BRCA1 gene (NM — 007294.2; SEQ ID NO:1); and (c) DNA molecules which comprise a sequence substantially different from those described above but which, due to the degeneracy of the genetic code, still encode the BRCA1 gene product. Since the genetic code is well known in the art, it is routine for one of ordinary skill in the art to produce the degenerate variants described above without undue experimentation. BRCA1 polynucleotides useful in the present invention which encode a BRCA1 polypeptide may include, but are not limited to, those encoding the amino acid sequence of the mature polypeptide by itself; the coding sequence for the mature polypeptide and additional, non-coding sequences, including for example introns and non-coding 5′ and 3′ sequences, such as the transcribed, untranslated regions (UTRs) or other 5′ flanking sequences that may play a role in transcription (e.g., via providing ribosome- or transcription factor-binding sites), mRNA processing (e.g. splicing and polyadenylation signals) and stability of mRNA; and the coding sequence for the BRCA1 polypeptide operably linked to a regulatory DNA sequence, including an autologous or heterologous regulatory DNA sequence such as a promoter or enhancer.
 BRCA1 polynucleotide also useful in the present invention are variants of BRCA1, which encode portions, analogs or derivatives of the BRCA1 polypeptide, which maintain tumor suppressor activity and which do not comprise a mutation implicated in the hereditary predisposition to familial breast and ovarian cancers. Variants may occur naturally, such as a natural allelic variant. By an “allelic variant” is intended one of several alternate forms of a gene occupying a given locus on a chromosome of an organism (see Lewin, B., ed., Genes II, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1985)). Non-naturally occurring variants may be produced using art-known mutagenesis techniques. Such variants include those produced by nucleotide substitutions, deletions and/or additions. The substitutions, deletions and/or additions may involve one or more nucleotides. The variants may be altered in coding regions, non-coding regions, or both. Alterations in the coding regions may produce conservative or non-conservative amino acid substitutions, deletions or additions. Especially preferred among these are silent substitutions, additions and deletions, which do not alter the tumor suppressor properties and activities of the BRCA1 gene product or portions thereof. Also especially preferred in this regard are conservative substitutions.
 Also useful in the present invention are BRCA1 polynucleotides comprising a polynucleotide having a nucleotide sequence at least 90% identical, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% or at least 99% identical to (a) human BRCA1 gene (NM — 007294.2; SEQ ID NO:1); (b) a nucleotide sequence encoding the full-length BRCA1 polypeptide encoded by human BRCA1 gene (NM — 007294.2; SEQ ID NO:1); and (c) a nucleotide sequence complementary to any of the polynucleotide sequences in (a) or (b) above. By a polynucleotide having a nucleotide sequence at least, for example, 95% “identical” to a reference nucleotide sequence encoding a BRCA1 polypeptide, it is intended that the nucleotide sequence of the polynucleotide is identical to the reference sequence except that the polynucleotide sequence may include up to five point mutations per each 100 nucleotides of the reference nucleotide sequence encoding the BRCA1 polypeptide. In other words, to obtain a polynucleotide having a nucleotide sequence at least 95% identical to a reference nucleotide sequence, up to 5% of the nucleotides in the reference sequence may be deleted or substituted with another nucleotide, or a number of nucleotides up to 5% of the total nucleotides in the reference sequence may be inserted into the reference sequence. These mutations of the reference sequence may occur at the 5′ or 3′ terminal positions of the reference nucleotide sequence or anywhere between those terminal positions, interspersed either individually among nucleotides in the reference sequence or in one or more contiguous groups within the reference sequence.
 Determining whether a polynucleotide is at least 90%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% or at least 99% identical to human BRCA1 gene (NM — 007294.2; SEQ ID NO:1), can be determined routinely using various commercially available computer programs including, but not limited to, FASTA, Gap or Bestfit, which are programs in Wisconsin Package Version 10.0, Genetics Computer Group (GCG), Madison, Wis. The BESTFIT program (Wisconsin Sequence Analysis Package, Version 8 for Unix, Genetics Computer Group, University Research Park, 575 Science Drive, Madison, Wis. 53711), employs a local homology algorithm (Smith and Waterman, Advances in Applied Mathematics 2: 482-489 (1981)) to find the best segment of homology between two sequences. Unless otherwise specified, default parameters for a particular program or algorithm are used. For instance, percent sequence identity between polynucleotides can be determined using FASTA with its default parameters (a word size of 6 and the NOPAM factor for the scoring matrix) or using Gap with its default parameters as provided in GCG Version 6.1.
 Due to the high incidence of alternative splicing in human BRCA1 gene (NM — 007294.2; SEQ ID NO:1), there are several known isoforms (NM — 007295.2 (SEQ ID NO:2), NM — 007296.2 (SEQ ID NO:3), NM — 007297.2 (SEQ ID NO:4), NM — 007298.2 (SEQ ID NO:5), NM — 007299.2 (SEQ ID NO:6), NM — 007300.2 (SEQ ID NO:7), NM — 007302.2 (SEQ ID NO:8), NM — 007303.2 (SEQ ID NO:9), NM — 007304.2 (SEQ ID NO:10), NM — 007305.2 (SEQ ID NO:11) and BC072418 (SEQ ID NO:12)) present naturally. Due the degeneracy of the genetic code, one of the ordinary skill in the art will immediate recognize that a large number of the nucleic acid molecules having a sequence at least 90%-99% identical to the nucleic acid sequence (NM — 007294.2 (SEQ ID NO:1) or its isoforms) will encode a polypeptide having BRCA1 protein activity. In fact, since degenerate variants of the polynucleotide all encode the same polypeptide, this will be clear to the skilled artisan even without performing the above-described comparison assay. It will be further recognized by one of ordinary skill in the art that, for such polynucleotides that are not degenerate variants, a reasonable number will also encode a polypeptide having BRCA1 protein activity. This is because the skilled artisan is fully aware of amino acid substitutions that are either less likely or unlikely to significantly affect protein function (e.g., replacing one aliphatic amino acid with a second aliphatic amino acid). For example, guidance concerning how to make phenotypically silent amino acid substitutions is provided in Bowie, J. U., et al., Science 247:1306-1310 (1990), and the references cited therein.
 In one embodiment of the present invention, BRCA1 is administered as a gene construct in a vector. Expression vectors useful in the present invention include chromosomal, episomal- and virus-derived vectors, e.g., vectors derived from bacterial plasmids, bacteriophages, yeast episomes, yeast chromosomal elements, viruses and vectors derived from combinations thereof, such as cosmids and phagemids as well as non-viral vectors such as polymers. Examples of vectors used in human gene therapy include, but are not limited to, adenovirus (Stewart et al. Gene Ther. 2006 November; 13(21):1503-11), retrovirus (Cavazzana-Calvo et al. Science 2000 669-672; Bonini et al. Science 1997 1719-1724; Gong et al. Gene Ther. 2007 November; 14(21):1537-42), lentivirus (Vigna et al. J. Gene. Med. 2000 308-316; Park et al. Nat. Genet. 2000 49-52; Shi et al. J Thromb Haemost. 2007 February; 5(2):352-61), vaccinia, poxviruses, adeno-associated virus, herpes simplex virus, nonviral vectors, and plasmids (Edelstein et al. J Gene Med 2007 9: 833-842). Delivery of a vector comprising BRCA1 may be achieved by a number of mechanisms including, but not limited to, infection, liposomal delivery, transfection, and gene gun. Viral vectors have been disclosed to be particularly effective in cardiac gene delivery due to their high transduction efficiency (Yockman et al. J Control Release. 2008 Jul. 6. [Epub ahead of print]). Viral vectors routinely used in cardiovascular gene therapy are adenoviruses (Yla-Herttuala et al., Nat Med 2007 9:694-701). Adenovirus-associated vectors (AAV), which are believed to be safer, injectable vectors in vivo for gene therapy, are also useful (Gregorevic et al. Nature Medicine 2004 Vol 10, (8):828-834). AAV is a parvovirus with a single-stranded DNA genome. The wild-type virus cannot replicate without the presence of a helper virus. There are multiple serotypes for this virus, but serotype 2 (AAV2) is the most commonly used (Wu et al. Mol Ther 2006 14: 316-327).
 The BRCA1 polynucleotide may be joined to a vector containing a selectable marker for propagation in a host. Generally, a plasmid vector is introduced into mammalian or avian cells in a precipitate, such as a calcium phosphate precipitate, or in a complex with a charged lipid (e.g., LIPOFECTAMINE™; Life Technologies, Inc.; Rockville, Md.) or in a complex with a virus (such as an adenovirus) or components of a virus (such as viral capsid peptides). If the vector is a virus, it may be packaged in vitro using an appropriate packaging cell line.
 In one embodiment, vectors comprising cis-acting control regions to the BRCA1 polynucleotide are used. Appropriate trans-acting factors may be supplied by the host, by a complementing vector or by the vector itself upon introduction into the host.
 In one embodiment, the vectors provide for specific expression, which may be inducible and/or cell type-specific.
 In one embodiment, the BRCA1 polynucleotide is operably linked to an appropriate regulatory sequence, for example, a promoter such as the SV40 early and late promoters, promoters of retroviral LTRs, the CMV immediate early promoter, the HSV thymidine kinase promoter, metallothionein promoters, and native human BRCA1 promoters and derivatives thereof, to name a few. Other suitable promoters will be known to the skilled artisan. The expression constructs will further contain sites for transcription initiation, termination and, in the transcribed region, a ribosome binding site for translation. The coding portion of the mature transcripts expressed by the constructs will preferably include a translation initiation codon (AUG) at the beginning and a termination codon (UAA, UGA or UAG) appropriately positioned at the end of the polypeptide to be translated.
 In one embodiment, the BRCA1 polynucleotide is operably linked to a regulatory genetic sequence, which may be an autologous or a heterologous regulatory genetic sequence, to form a genetic construct. Genetic constructs according to this aspect of the invention are intended to encompass not only those comprising a polynucleotide encoding BRCA1 protein operably linked to a regulatory DNA sequence, but also those constructs comprising one or more regulatory sequences operably linked to a BRCA1 polynucleotide fragment which does not encode BRCA1 protein, but which contains a sufficient portion of the BRCA1 nucleotide sequence (a “targeting fragment”) to target the genetic construct to the native BRCA1 locus upon introduction into a host cell wherein the BRCA1 gene may be inactive due to repression or mutation. These constructs may be inserted into a vector as above, and the vectors introduced into a host cell, the genome of which comprises the target gene, by any of the methods described above. The BRCA1 polynucleotide will then integrate into the host cell genome by homologous recombination. In the case of a construct comprising an autologous or heterologous regulatory sequence linked to a targeting BRCA1 polynucleotide fragment, the regulatory sequence will be targeted to the native BRCA1 locus in the host cell, and will amplify or de-repress the expression of the native BRCA1 gene in the host cell, thereby increasing the level of production of BRCA1 protein. Alternatively, such gene targeting may be carried out using genetic constructs comprising the above-described BRCA1 targeting fragment in the absence of a regulatory sequence. Such methods of producing genetic constructs, introducing genes of interest into a host cell via homologous recombination and producing the encoded polypeptides are generally described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,578,461; WO 94/12650; WO 93/09222; and WO 90/14092, teachings of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety.
 Transcription of the DNA encoding BRCA1 by the host may be increased by inserting an enhancer sequence into the vector. Enhancers are cis-acting elements of DNA, usually from about 10 to 300 bp, that act to increase transcriptional activity of a promoter in a given host cell-type. Examples of enhancers include the SV40 enhancer, which is located on the late side of the replication origin at by 100 to 270, the cytomegalovirus early promoter enhancer, the polyoma enhancer on the late side of the replication origin, and adenovirus enhancers. In an alternative embodiment of the invention, transcriptional activation of the BRCA1 gene may be enhanced by inserting one or more concatamerized elements from the native human or BRCA1 promoter into the vector.
 Viral vector delivery may be enhanced by addition of a peptide as described by Gratton et al. (Nature Medicine 2003 357-362) and Kahnel et al. J Virol. 2004 December; 78(24):13743-54)
 Non-viral vectors have also been described with increased transfection efficiency (Muller et al. Cardiovasc Res 2007 73(3): 453-462) and can be used in the present invention. In one embodiment a polymer that employs lipid modifications to improve transfection or target cardiovascular tissues can be used. An example is water-soluble lipopolymer (WSLP) consisting of a low molecular weight branched PEI (1800) and cholesterol. The cholesterol moiety adds extra condensation by forming stable micellular complexes and can be employed for myocardial gene therapy to exploit the high expression of lipoprotein lipase found within cardiac tissue. Bioreducible polymers made of poly(amidopolyethylenimines) (SS-PAEI) can also be used. SS-PAEIs breakdown within the cytoplasm through inherent redox mechanisms and provide for high transfection efficiencies (upwards to 60% in cardiovascular cell types) with little to no demonstrable toxicity.
 In another embodiment of the present invention, BRCA1 is administered as naked DNA delivered directly to the cardiac myocardium (Hao et al. Cardiovasc Res. 2007 73(3): 481-487) or endotheilium.
 Microbubble based gene therapy techniques as described by Shen et al. (Gene Therapy 2008 (15) 257-266) can also be used to deliver the BRCA1 gene.
 In another embodiment, the BRCA1 protein is delivered directly to the cardiac myocardium (Hao et al. Cardiovasc Res. 2007 73(3): 481-487; Laham et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 December; 36(7):2132-9). In this embodiment, BRCA1 may be administered as a fusion protein. A better understanding of active peptide sequences involved in cell-binding, fusogenic peptides, and nuclear localization has contributed to protein delivery strategies (Morris et al., Curr Opin Biotechnol 2000 11:461-466). Nuclear localization signals (NLS) can direct protein through the nuclear pore complex and are often characterized by being rich in the basic amino acids, such as lysine and arginine (Dingwall and Laskey, 1991, TIBS 16: 478-481). The SV40 large T antigen, Pro-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Val, has been viewed as the model for mapping nuclear targeting sequences. Consensus sequences have been described in many organisms and the list of such signals keeps growing (Mekhail et al., 2007, Molec Biol of the Cell 18: 3966-3977). Fusing NLS signals to gene sequences is commonly used to target cells and/or the nucleus; examples are the SV40 NLS and the HIV-1 Transactivator of Transcription (TAT) sequences. Other methods of targeting proteins to cells also include nanoparticles, antibodies, ligands, peptide sequences, etc.
 Various means for delivery of BRCA1 can be used.
 In one embodiment, a BRCA1 gene construct such as AdBRCA1 is delivered percutaneously at the time of coronary or percutaneous angiography or angioplasty. In another embodiment, a BRCA1 gene construct such as AdBRCA1 is delivered by intramyocardial injection into the left or right ventricle at the time of coronary artery bypass surgery. Endomyocardial injections using a nonflouroscopic, 3-dimensional mapping and injection (NOGA) catheter-based system as well as percutaneous, catheter-based intramyocardial injection provide practical, feasible, and potentially safe approaches for intramyocardial gene transfer (Fuchs et al. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2006 September; 68(3):372-8; Ripa et al. Eur Heart J. 2006 August; 27(15):1785-92;). Direct intramyocardial delivery of a replication-deficient adenovirus-containing the gene can also be used (Rivard et al. Gene Ther. 2006 November; 13(21):1503-11). In another embodiment, particularly useful in non-revascularizable patients to improve angiogenesis and cardiac function, delivery can be achieved via a small mini thoracotomy (Kastrup et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Apr. 5; 45(7):982-8; Symes et al. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999 September; 68(3):830-6; discussion 836-7). In another embodiment, BRCA1 overexpressing progenitor cells are delivered systemically by intravenous delivery to patients with coronary artery disease or heart failure.
 Strategies to augment BRCA1 delivery in the heart and blood vessels (macro and microvasculature) using gene, cell or protein based approaches encompassed within the present invention include, but are not limited to, administration with or without systemic and/or local therapies such as statins, angiotensin antagonists, aspirin, clopidogrel, or growth factors.
 Hundreds of gene therapy trials have been performed and are currently ongoing, and dose varies depending on the indications. While not be limiting to a particular dose range for BRCA1 in the present invention, based upon many clinical trials with human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), it is expected that subjects can be administered anywhere from 500 to 16,000 μg of a BRCA1 construct in single or multiple sessions. Doses can also be described in particle units (PU) or plaque forming units (pfu), which can range from 100 to 10 13 . These trials, among others, are reviewed in Kalka and Baumgartner (2008, Vascular Medicine 13:157-172) for the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusion diseases and other examples can be found in Evans et al. (2008, Arthritis Research & Therapy 10(110): 1-9).
 The following nonlimiting examples further illustrate the present invention.
 All animal protocols used in this study received approval and were according to institutional guidelines. Wild type mice on a C57Bl/6 background and purchased from Jackson Laboratories. All mice were maintained in sterile micro-isolator cages under pathogen-free conditions. Food and water was available ab-libidum, and all handling was done under a laminar-flow hood according to standard procedures for maintaining clean mice. Sprague-Dawley rat pups (1-2 day old) were obtained from (Charles-River).
 Cardiac specific BRCA1 knockout mice were generated on a mixed background. Mice homozygous for a floxed BRCA1 allele were crossed with heterozygous mice that express Cre recombinase under the control of the α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC-Cre) promoter. Mice demonstrating the αMHC-Cre tg/+ ; BRCA1 f1/f1 combination were identified as cardiomyocyte specific BRCA1 knockouts (CM-BRCA1-KO) while littermates not expressing the Cre transgene were used as controls. Each mouse was genotyped using routine PCR methods with the following sets of primers: BRCA1 floxed allele-004: 5′-CTGGGTAGTTTGTAAGCATGC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:13); 005: 5′-CAATAAACTGCTGGTTCTAGG-3′ (SEQ ID NO:14) and 006: 5;-CTGCGAGCAGTCTTCAGAAAG-3′ (SEQ ID NO:15); αMHC-Cre transgene-5′-ATGACAGACAGATCCCTCCTATCTCC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:16) and 5′-CTCATCACTCGTTGCATCGAC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:17).
Experimental Myocardial Infarction (MI)
 C57Bl/6 WT mice were anesthetized using 2% isofluran mixed with saturated oxygen and ventilated. MI was induced by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery with a 7-0 silk suture immediately distal to main ramification. Significant discoloration in the ischemic area was considered indicative of successful coronary occlusion. In sham MI group, the same surgical procedure was performed, except the coronary ligation step. Mice were sacrificed at stipulated time points.
Doxorubicin Treatment and Exogenous BRCA1 Delivery
 Eight to nine weeks old C57Bl/6 WT males with median body weight 24 g were treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 10 mg/kg doxorubicin (Sigma Aldrich, USA). Concomitantly, 40 μl of adenoviral construct containing either human-BRCA1, GFP or Null (Vector Biolabs, USA) was given intravenously with the concentration of 1×10 10 PFU/ml.
 Double-blinded echocardiography was performed on the doxorubicin- and adenoviral vectors-treated mice 3 days and 7 days post-treatment. Echocardiographic imaging was performed under light sedation (1-1.5% isofluran) using an HDI 5000cv echocardiographic system (Philips Ultrasound, Bothell, Wash.) equipped with a compact 15 MHz broadband linear transducer (CL15-7). Two-dimensional (2-D) imaging was performed in the parasternal long- and short-axis views. An M-mode cursor was positioned perpendicular to the interventricular septum and posterior wall of the LV at the level of the papillary muscles, and M-mode images were obtained for measurement of chamber dimensions throughout the cardiac cycle. End-diastolic posterior LV wall thickness, LV end-diastolic (LVEDD) and end-systolic LV dimension (LVESD) were measured. During diastole, LV dimension and wall thickness were measured from the maximum chamber cavity; during systole, they were measured during maximum anterior motion of the posterior wall. Images were stored to the hard drive for off-line analysis.
 Fractional shortening (FS) was defined as [(LVEDD−LVESD)/LVEDD]. LV ejection fraction was defined as [(LVEDD 3 −LVESD 3 )/LVEDD 3 ]×100. Stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) was calculated from the following equations. CSA=(AoD/2) 2 ×n, SV=CSA×Aortic VTI, CO=SV×HR. In all cases, three beats were averaged for each measurement.
Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes in Culture
 Cultured rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs) were prepared as follows. Ventricles were harvested from 1- or 2-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats, and cardiomyocytes isolated by digestion with trypsin. Following digestion, the cells were pre-plated for 1 hour and supernatants were collected containing primarily cardiomyocytes, removing non-myocyte cells. Cardiomyocytes were kept in medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, antibiotics (50 μg/ml) and BrdU (0.1 mM) for 48 hours before adenoviral infection.
Adenoviral Overexpression of BRCA1 in Isolated NRVMs
 Cardiomyocytes were infected with 10MOI of a replication deficient adenoviral vector containing the CMV promoter and either human BRCA1 or a null vector (human Adenovirus Type5 dE1/E3, Vector Biolabs, USA). Following 48 hours incubation, cardiomyocytes were treated with 2 μM of doxorubicin or 50 μM of H 2 O 2 . The inhibitor of p53, pifithrin-α (10 μm, Sigma Aldrich, USA) was added 2 hrs prior to the addition of doxorubicin or hydrogen peroxide. After 24 hours, cardiomyocytes were either trypsinized and collected for flow cytometry or harvested for protein and RNA extraction.
Flow Cytometry for AnnexinV-FITC and Propidium Iodide Staining
 Following appropriate treatment, cardiomyocytes were trypsinized and collected in 1× binding buffer provided with AnnexinV-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit (BD Biosciences, USA). Flow cytometric analyses were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and cells were examined within 1 hour for AnnexinV-FITC and PI staining (Beckmann Coulter, USA).
RNA, Protein Extraction, Real-Time PCR and Western Blotting
 Total RNA was isolated from NRVMs or heart using trizol (Invitrogen, USA) reagent and reverse transcribed using a commercially available kit (Quantitect Reverse Transcription Kit, Qiagen Germany). Real-time reactions were carried out with the ABI-SYBR Green master mix (ABI Systems, UK). The following primers were used (i) murine BRCA1 (forward-5′-ATCTGCCGTCCAAATTCAAG-3′ (SEQ ID NO:18), reverse-5′-TTCCAAACAGATCGGACACTC-3′ (SEQ ID NO:19), human BRCA1 (forward-5′-AACAGCTACCCTTCCATCATAAGT-3′ (SEQ ID NO:20), reverse-5′-GGGTATTCACTACTTTTCTGTGAAGTT-3′ (SEQ ID NO:21)) and GAPDH (forward-5′-TGGATGCAGGGATGATGTTCT-3′ (SEQ ID NO:22), reverse-5′-TGCACCACCAACTGCTTAGCC (SEQ ID NO:23)) as internal control. Total proteins were extracted using RIPA buffer (Sigma Aldrich, USA) and 40 μg of total lysates were resolved via SDS gel electrophoresis before being transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. The membranes were probed with antibodies for BRCA1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA), p53, phospho-p53, cleaved caspase-3 (Cell Signaling Technology, USA), TFIIB (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA), GAPDH and α-actin (Chemicon, USA).
 For analysis of physical interaction between BRCA1 and p53, cardiomyocytes were maintained and treated in 6-cm culture-dishes. After adenoviral and/or stress treatments, cells were scraped and suspended in 100 μL of RIPA buffer. The total cell lysate was obtained after homogenization and centrifugation at 14,000 g for 30 minutes at 4° C. Protein concentration was determined by the Bradford assay. Aliquots of each fraction (100 μg protein for total cell lysate) were incubated with either 0.5 μg of anti-p53 mouse monoclonal antibody (Cell Signaling Technology, USA) or with 0.5 μg of anti-BRCA1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA) for 1 hour at 4° C. Addition of protein A-Sepharose (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) and incubation for 16 hours at 4° C. was followed by centrifugation and repetitive washing of the Sepharose beads. After the final wash, the beads were resuspended in 24 μL of sample buffer, and the samples were boiled, resolved by 4-12% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the proteins transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. Western blot analyses was performed with anti-p53 (Cell Signaling Technology, USA) and anti-BRCA1 antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, USA). The immunoblots were probed with appropriate horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies and visualized with enhanced chemiluminescence (GE Healthscience, USA).
 Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were purchased from Cambrex and cultured in MCDB-131 complete medium (Cambrex Corporation). After appropriate RNA interference, HUVECs were incubated with 20 ng/ml TNFα (R & D) or 2 μM doxorubicin (Sigma) before experimental protocols were initiated. These concentrations were determined from pilot optimization studies.
 A BRCA1 adenovirus (ad-BRCA1) containing the complete coding sequence of human BRCA1 with the CMV promoter was purchased from Vector BioLabs. Ad-null and ad-GFP from the same source served as controls. The efficacy of adenovirus delivery was optimized by transfecting HUVECs with ad-GFP (see FIG. 19A ). Optimal ratio for ad-BRCA1 transfection was determined in preliminary western blot ( FIG. 19B ) and real-time PCR experiments to be 20 MOI.
 BRCA1 gene expression was silenced by transfection with a SMART pool BRCA1 siRNA coupled with the siPORT NeoFX transfection reagent as per the manufacturer's recommendations (Ambion). The negative control comprised a cocktail of four scrambled siRNAs. The optimal siBRCA1 concentration was determined in pilot experiments to be 10 nM. The transfection medium was removed after 24 hours and maintained for the next 24 hours in MCDB-131 complete medium before initiating experimental procedures.
 Western blot analysis was performed according to standard procedures. Proteins from whole cell lysates of HUVECs were resolved on SDS-polyacrylamide gels and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes (Bio-Rad). Membranes were probed with primary antibodies from Santa Cruz (BRCA1), Cell Signaling (p53, p21, Ser1177-phospho-eNOS, Akt, Ser473-phospho-Akt, cleaved caspase-3), Chemicon (GADD45a, GAPDH) and BD (eNOS). Immunoblots were incubated with the appropriate horseradish peroxidase-associated secondary antibodies before signals were visualized by chemiluminescence via the ECL detection system (GE Healthcare).
In Vitro Apoptosis Assays
 Apoptotic and necrotic cell death were assessed in ad-BRCA1 and ad-null infected HUVECs by flow cytometry coupled with the BD Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. Data were acquired on a Beckman Coulter Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer equipped with a 488 nm argon gas laser.
 DNA extracted from ad-BRCA1 and ad-null infected HUVECs were resolved by horizontal electrophoresis. DNA fragmentation was visualized under ultraviolet light.
Cell Cycle Analysis
 Ad-BRCA1 and ad-null infected HUVECs were fixed with 70% ethanol and 100 μg/ml RNase A (Sigma) before being stained with propidium iodide (50 μg/ml, Sigma). Data on DNA content was collected with by flow cytometry and quantified with CXP software (Beckman Coulter).
 The migratory function of HUVECs was determined with the CytoSelect™ 24-Well Cell Migration Fluorometric Assay (Cell Biolabs). Ad-BRCA1- or ad-null-transfected HUVECs (0.25×10 6 ) were placed in the upper chambers (pore size 8 μm) in the presence or absence of TNFα (20 ng/ml). The lower chambers were filled with 10% FBS-supplemented complete MCDB-131 medium. Following 12 hours at 37° C., migratory cells were dissociated from the underside of the insert membrane, lysed and stained with the Lysis Buffer/CyQuant® GR dye solution before being fluorescently quantified. Each experiment was performed in triplicate and repeated thrice.
 HUVEC-associated angiogenesis was measured with the In Vitro Angiogenesis Assay Kit from Chemicon. Ad-BRCA1- or ad-null-transfected HUVECs (9×10 3 ) were seeded in 96-well Matrigel-coated plates. Capillary-like tube formation was examined and photographed 5 hours after seeding with an inverted microscope (Nikon). Tube formation was quantified by counting the number of tubes, branching points and network of tubes in randomly captured microscopic fields and by scoring the values for each type of structure. Each experiment was performed in triplicate and repeated thrice.
RNA Extraction and Real-Time Quantitative PCR
 Total RNA extracted from HUVECs were reverse transcribed for quantitative assessment of VCAM1, ICAM1, E-selectin and VEGFa expressions by real-time PCR using the primer pairs listed in Table 4.
 TABLE 4 Primer Pairs Gene primer pairs Sequences ICAM1- Forward 5′-TGATGGGCAGTCAACAGCTA-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 24) ICAM1- Reverse 5′-AGGGTAAGGTTCTTGCCCAC-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 25) VCAM1- Forward 5′-TGGGAAAAACAGAAAAGAGGTG-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 26) VCAM1- Reverse 5′-GTCTCCAATCTGAGCAGCAA-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 27) E-Selectin- 5′-AAGCCTTGAATCAGACGGAA-3′ Forward (SEQ ID NO: 28) E-Selectin- 5′-TCCCTCTAGTTCCCCAGATG-3′ Reverse (SEQ ID NO: 29) VEGFa- Forward 5′-CTACCTCCACCATGCCAAGT-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 30) VEGFa- Reverse 5′-AGCTGCGCTGATAGACATCC-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 31) GAPDH- Forward 5′-CACCAGGGCTGCTTTTAACTCTGGTA-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 32) GAPDH- Reverse 5′-CCTTGACGGTGCCATGGAATTTGC-3′ (SEQ ID NO: 33)
PCR reactions were performed on the ABI PRISM 7900HT system (Applied Biosystems) with GAPDH acting as the housekeeping control.
Mouse Hindlimb Ischemia
 Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was performed on anaesthetized 8-week old male Balb/c mice. Briefly, the left femoral artery was ligated and excised distal to the origin of the deep femoral artery but proximal to the popliteal artery. Immediately following the surgical procedure, 20 μl of 10 10 PFU/ml ad-BRCA1 or ad-GFP were injected intramuscularly at five locations of the left adductor muscle. Blood flow in the feet was assessed upon completion of the surgery and on post-operative days 4, 8, 16 and 28 by laser Doppler flow imaging. Perfusion recovery was expressed as the recovery of blood flow to the ischemic foot normalized to that in the contralateral foot.
 Following 28 days of ischemia, gastrocnemius muscles were harvested, frozen and embedded in OCT for cryosectioning (7 μm). Sections were subsequently stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Antibodies targeting isolectin B4, TOPRO-3A and α-smooth muscle actin were used to identify endothelial cells, nuclei and arterioles respectively. Capillary density was determined in at least ten independent fields by fluorescence microscopy.
 Where appropriate, means were compared by the Student's t test. Differences between multiple means were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Bonferroni test. A probability value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significance.